The gender norm: Breaking the gender romance
Gender equality is without a doubt an important agenda in most contemporary societies. Consequently, it has been and become an important agenda in development policy and practice. However, the lack of attention and question on gender as a norm and a paradigm has not been sufficient. The paper intends to question the sanctity of gender norm by exploring the process of normalisation and the use of agency, in hope that approaches in gender issues are not simply based on “modern” or European-led ideas but also to be addressed from “traditions”, whose ideas tend to be the target subject for re-education. The normalisation process, involves the viewpoints of actors who mainly consist of European aid donors, which risks imposing European’s view on gender equality by focusing on addressing the problems they face in their own context.
Intercultural dialogue: Ethnography of dynamic, hegemony, and differentiation
In contemporary societies, especially in the post-colonial context, performing as well as proving inclusiveness in regard to gender, race, ethnicity, and religion has become a potent means of sustaining public support and offering rationale. Subsequently, the term “cultural diversity” has gained great significance, yet without the clarification of the meaning and its latent representations. The following research objectives and literature review shed the light on how dialogue participants perceive and use the term diversity, and what roles does the articulation of difference play in shaping dynamics and intercultural dialogues.
With the emergence of transculturalism, the understanding of culture has broadened its spectrum from the static notions of culture to the more dynamic views of culture. Despite the change of perspective in different cultures, however, negative affiliation towards a certain group of population, namely Muslim Americans, still remains to be dominant with the help of popular political narratives and media coverages on the on-going war on terror in America. Muslim Americans are faced with discriminations based on what they are seen to represent and it shapes their social experiences. These particular social experiences coloured with negative cultural affiliation to Muslim community can be recognised as what Kleinman calls suffering from everyday violence. This paper intends to analyse identity negotiation among Muslim Americans in relation with social violence in transcultural environment.
Participation: The reversal of relationship?
Participatory approach in development has now become the utmost essential component of project designs which aim for equity and sustainability. Its ambitious commence forwarded by the goal of meeting pro-poor, grassroots, and sustainable form of development has attracted development actors, namely government, multilateral institutions, and international and national NGOs, to adopt the approach to their agenda in accordance with the global trend. This study will explore participatory approach as a reversal of relationship between development actors. In order to do so, it will present the shift of position of two main actors, namely local population in intervention area indicated as participant and development worker as facilitator, in a critical view on the reversed position.